- — Accountant
- — American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA)
- — Association of Accounting Technicians
- — Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA)
- — Auditor
- — Certified Financial Planner (CFP)
- — Certified General Accountants (CGA)
- — Certified in Financial Management (CFM)
- — Certified Internal Auditor (CIA)
- — Certified Management Accountant (CMA)
- — Certified Public Accountants (CPA)
- — Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA)
- — Chartered Institute of Management (CIMA)
- — Chief Executive Officer (CEO)
- — Chief Financial Officer (CFO)
- — Chief Human Resources Officer (CHRO)
- — Chief Operating Officer (COO)
- — Coaching
- — Continuing Professional Education
- — Doctor of Business Administration (DBA)
- — Financial Advisor
- — Financial Analyst
- — Financial Planner
- — Financial risk manager (FRM)
- — Financier
- — Institute of Management Accountants (IMA)
- — International Association of Book keepers (IAB)
- — International Federation of Accountants (IFAC)
- — Junior Accountant
- — Master of Business Administration (MBA)
- — Performance Appraisal
- — Project Management Institute (PMI)
- — Senior Accountant
- — Team Building
- — Work Sampling
An accountant is a professional person who carries out accounting functions like financial statement analysis or audits, accountants can be employed either with an accounting firm, a large company with an in-house accounting department, or can even set up an individual practice.
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA)
The AICPA is a non-profit professional organization of certified public accountants in the US. The AICPA was established in 1887, under the name of American Association of Public Accountants, so as to make sure that accountancy obtained respect as a profession and that it was practiced by competent and ethical professionals. The AICPA subsists to provide as much as 370,000 members with the resources, info, and leadership to provide CPA services in the most efficient professional manner.
Association of Accounting Technicians
The Association of Accounting Technicians (AAT) is an accountancy organization that has more than 120,000 members all over the world. The Association of Accounting Technicians is a qualification of technician level which gives the right to those who have cleared the exams and have appropriate supervised experience of work of accountants. The main branch of AAT is in London but it has many branches all over the United Kingdom and also in other parts of the world. AAT receives sponsorship from four chartered accountancy bodies of UK and they are ICAEW, ICAS, CIPFA and CIMA.
Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA)
The Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) is the international body for professional accountants. This association was founded in 1904 and proffers the Chartered Certified Accountant qualification. The term ‘Chartered’ in ACCA qualification implies to the Royal Charter granted in 1974 by Her Majesty the Queen in the UK.
An auditor can be defined as a professional who performs the job of carefully checking the exactness of business records and confirming trustworthiness of the financial statements.
Certified Financial Planner (CFP)
A person who can pull-through for others and accomplish their financial goals is a financial planner. The financial goals are shaped according to the needs of the client. Their goals may vary from saving money to buy a house, planning against financial crises that may arise, etc. A prospering financial planner is on who not only excels in a particular type of investment but in all of them. Areas of awareness of a financial planner are stock investment, bonds, mutual funds, insurance policies, etc. The most basic and greatest quality that a financial planner can possess is credibility. Meaning that the financial organizer must be renowned and his clients shall carry forward a good reputation for him. The better known he is the more opportunities he gets.
Certified General Accountants (CGA)
Certified General Accountant (CGA), is an accounting professional possessing expertise in taxation, finance, business strategy, management, auditing, and business leadership. Moreover, CGA is a designation for professionals who are jointly the members of the Certified General Accountants Association of Canada.
Certified in Financial Management (CFM)
The CFM is a professional designation provided by the Institute of Management Accountants for financial managers. These professionals receive specializes training in the study of how accounting and financial info is used by managers in taking current or prospective business decisions. However, it is obligatory for members to fulfill a work experience requirement and provide evidence of continuing education.
Certified Internal Auditor (CIA)
The Certified Internal Auditor (CIA) is a certification proffered to accountants conducting internal audits. It is, however, essential for the Certified Internal Auditors to congregate several requirements to achieve this designation, like passing a four-part exam that includes all issues, risks, and remedies pertaining to internal audits. The Certified Internal Auditor designation is conferred by the Institute of Internal Auditors and is the only such credential which is accepted internationally.
Certified Management Accountant (CMA)
The CMA is an accounting designation wherein the holder formally demonstrates a blend of expertise in strategic management and financial accounting. This certification gets bigger on financial accounting through the addition of management skills which are helpful in making the strategic business decisions based on financial information.
Certified Public Accountants (CPA)
The CPA (Certified Public Accountant) is a designation provided by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants to those who clear an exam in addition to fulfilling the work experience requirements. Explained another way, the CPA designation is an important documentation that attests to your in-depth knowledge about accounting principles and practices, counting applicable laws and regulations.
Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA)
Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) is one of the most valued designations given by the CFA Institute which quantifies the competence and integrity of financial analysts. The CFA program emphasizes on financial analysis and portfolio management in addition to providing generalist knowledge of other finance areas.
Chartered Institute of Management (CIMA)
The CIMA (Chartered Institute of Management Accountants) is a professional body, based in UK, which proffers training and qualification in management accountancy and similar subjects which are focused on accounting for business in addition to ongoing support for members. The Chartered Institute of management is one of the various professional associations for accountants in the Republic of Ireland as well as the UK.
Chief Executive Officer (CEO)
Chief executive officer of the company is the highest-ranking official of the company. The CEO of the company is the individual selected by the board of directors (BOD) as the leading figure of the company who has a complete or limited authority on the company’s operations depending on the articles of association of the company.
Chief Financial Officer (CFO)
The position of the chief financial officer is one of the top ranking positions for the financial operations in the company and the CFO of the company is the person who manages and deals with the financial risks of the company. To put it simply, the job of the CFO is to manage the finances of the company.
Chief Human Resources Officer (CHRO)
Chief Human Resource Officer (CHRO) is a corporate officer whose task is to watch over all the operations of industrial relations and human resource management of an organization. Chief Human Resource Officer is sometimes known by other names that include Chief Personnel Officer, Chief People Officer, and Senior Vice President of Human Resources and Executive Vice President of Human Resources.
Chief Operating Officer (COO)
Chief operating officer (COO) is one of the top-ranking officials in the management hierarchy of a company. The role of the COO in the company is to run the day-to-day operations of the company and report them to the higher management of the company, i.e. board of directors (BOD).
Coaching is a very common term and means getting training or teaching to attain a specific personal or professional goal. It involves a gentleman with great experience who uses his expertise to provide guidance and advice to other people of the same profession.
Continuing Professional Education
Continuing professional education (CPE) is needed by Charted Professional Accountants for maintaining their professional knowledge and competence and offer high-quality professional accounting services. The charted professional accountants have the responsibility of complying with different CPE requirements, regulations and rules of the state boards of accountancy and those of professional organizations and member associations.
Doctor of Business Administration (DBA)
Abbreviated as DBA or D.B.A, and equivalent to PhD in Business Administration, the degree of Doctor of Business Administration can be referred as research doctorate in business administration. The DBA calls for research and coursework afar the masters degree which usually results in an exposition and potential journal publication which contributes to business practice.
A financial advisor can be addressed as a professional who provides financial services to individuals, businesses, and governments. These financial services may include pension planning or/and advice related to life insurance and similar insurances like income protection insurance, critical illness insurance, and also advise on mortgages.
A financial analyst, also known as securities analyst, equity analyst, research analyst, or investment analyst, is an individual who carries out financial analysis for internal or external clients as a fundamental part of the job. Writing notes or reports conveying opinions is always a part of “sell-side” (brokerage) analyst job and is generally not requisite for “buy-side” (investment firms) analysts. Conventionally, analysts use principles of financial analysis rather than technical chart analysis and strategic evaluation of the market milieu are also routine.
A financial planner is a committed professional who provides help to people in dealing with different personal financial issues with the help of financial planning. This includes education planning, cash flow management, investment planning, retirement planning, tax planning, risk management and insurance planning, estate planning and business succession planning. The job performed by a financial planner is generally referred as personal finance planning.
Financial risk manager (FRM)
A risk manager is a professional who identifies risks involved in an investment and also tries to mitigate them, if possible. For instance, a risk manager might look at a bond and spot the possibility of default as a risk thus evaluating the likelihood of that scenario. However, it is sometimes not possible to mitigate the risk. Ion such a situation, the risk managers evaluate how central is the investment to one’s risk tolerance and investment goals. Risk managers, therefore, help the investors in accomplishment of their goals by showing the affect of their investments and looking for ways to alleviate the situation.
The profession of a financier is concerned all about the making investments and these investments typically involve large sums of money. There are different categories of money investments and likewise there are different categories of the financiers making investments.
Institute of Management Accountants (IMA)
The Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) is essentially an association meant for finance professionals from across the world. The primary aim of IMA is to offer a research forum, impart education and practice management accounting as well as finance development. The Institute of Management Accountants also advocates the best and highest ethical practices in the fields of accounting and finance.
International Association of Book keepers (IAB)
The International Association of Book-keepers (IAB) was founded in 1973 and until approximately ten years ago it focussed purely on being a professional and examining body for bookkeepers. Building on this, today the IAB is the leading UK and international professional body for those providing bookkeeping and related accounting services to small businesses. Through its broad range of Ofqual accredited qualifications and its CPD activities, the IAB aims to meet an extensive range of financial skills needs of young people and adults and to provide essential business skills for those starting or developing a small business.
International Federation of Accountants (IFAC)
International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) is referred as a global organization for accountancy profession. IFAC features 164 members and associates in 124 countries and jurisdictions, on behalf of more than 2.5 million accountants engaged in public practice, government, industry and commerce, and academe. With the support of its self-regulating standard-setting boards, the organization establishes international standards on auditing and assurance, ethics, public sector accounting, and accounting education. Besides, it also issues guidance to encourage good quality performance by professional accountants in business.
A junior accountant is a person who holds entry level position in an accounting department. One of the most important prerequisites for this position is a college degree in accounting. Other required attributes include mathematical aptitude and analytical ability. A junior accountant is generally supervised by a senior accountant or accounting manager. However, the duties and responsibilities vitiate with the organization, but usually include posting journal entries, updating financial statements, preparation of monthly financial reports, calculation of payroll taxes, auditing and maintaining accounts receivable and payable.
Master of Business Administration (MBA)
The Master of Business Administration (MBA) refers to a master’s degree in business administration, which catches the attention of people from a wide range of academic disciplines. The origin of MBA designation is believed to be in the US, rising from the late 19th century as the nation industrialized and companies looked for scientific approaches to management. The basic courses included in the MBA programs are projected to introduce students to different areas of business including marketing, finance, human resources, operations management, and similar more.
Performance appraisal is the impartial, periodic and systematic evaluation of an individual in matters relating to his present job and his potential and capability for a better job. It is the process to measure the past and present performance of employees both quantitatively and qualitatively against the background of their environment of work, the background of their expected role performance and about their future potential for the organization.
Project Management Institute (PMI)
Project Management Institute or PMI is one of the most renowned professional associations for members that are a non-profit organization. More than 185 countries worldwide are a part of this organization that helps in providing various professional development opportunities, and also promotes the profession of project management through recognized principles and certifications and wide-ranging research programs and other such opportunities.
A senior accountant is a professional who provides financial info and incentives for mid-sized to large businesses. A highly qualified individual will help acquire new accounts for his employer, in addition to issuing financial analysis and reporting. A senior accountant not only possesses leadership qualities but is also able to handle multiple financial responsibilities on a regular basis.
Team building is actually a simple viewpoint of professional planning in which all the workers are taken as a single entity instead of being an individual employee. In this type of philosophy all the employees are seen interdependent on each other and work on their mutual interests. It is followed by means of a multiplicity of practices and can be found ranging from very simple practices to some extremely complex exercises for the entire team.
There are different techniques and strategies evolved for determination of the proportion of time spent by workers in the specified period of time. Among these, the work sampling is the most effective and rightly followed statistical technique.
- Debt ratios
- Liquidity ratios
- Profitability ratios
- Asset management ratios
- Cash Flow Indicator Ratios
- Market value ratios
- Financial analysis
- Business Terms
- Financial education
- International Financial Reporting Standards (EU)
- IFRS Interpretations (EU)
- Financial software