IAS 41 Agriculture
EC staff consolidated version as of 16 September2009
Last EU endorsed/amended on 23.01.2009
The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment and disclosures related to agricultural activity.
1This Standard shall be applied to account for the following when they relate to agricultural activity:
(b)agricultural produce at the point of harvest; and
(c)government grants covered by paragraphs 34–35.
2This Standard does not apply to:
(a)land related to agricultural activity (see IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and IAS 40
Investment Property); and
(b)intangible assets related to agricultural activity (see IAS 38 Intangible Assets).
3This Standard is applied to agricultural produce, which is the harvested product of the entity’s biological assets, only at the point of harvest. Thereafter, IAS 2 Inventories or another applicable Standard is applied. Accordingly, this Standard does not deal with the processing of agricultural produce after harvest; for example, the processing of grapes into wine by a vintner who has grown the grapes. While such processing may be a logical and natural extension of agricultural activity, and the events taking place may bear some similarity to biological transformation, such processing is not included within the definition of agricultural activity in this Standard.
4The table below provides examples of biological assets, agricultural produce, and products that are the result of processing after harvest:
|Biological assets||Agricultural produce||Products that are the result of|
|processing after harvest|
|Trees in a plantation forest||Felled trees||Logs, lumber|
|Pigs||Carcass||Sausages, cured hams|
|Bushes||Leaf||Tea, cured tobacco|
|Fruit trees||Picked fruit||Processed fruit|
5The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:
Agricultural activity is the management by an entity of the biological transformation and harvest of biological assets for sale or for conversion into agricultural produce or into additional biological assets.
Agricultural produce is the harvested product of the entity’s biological assets.
A biological asset is a living animal or plant.
Biological transformation comprises the processes of growth, degeneration, production, and procreation that cause qualitative or quantitative changes in a biological asset.
A group of biological assets is an aggregation of similar living animals or plants.
Harvest is the detachment of produce from a biological asset or the cessation of a biological asset’s life processes.
Costs to sell are the incremental costs directly attributable to the disposal of an asset, excluding finance costs and income taxes.
6Agricultural activity covers a diverse range of activities; for example, raising livestock, forestry, annual or perennial cropping, cultivating orchards and plantations, floriculture, and aquaculture (including fish farming). Certain common features exist within this diversity:
(a)Capability to change. Living animals and plants are capable of biological transformation;
(b)Management of change. Management facilitates biological transformation by enhancing, or at least stabilising, conditions necessary for the process to take place (for example, nutrient levels, moisture, temperature, fertility, and light). Such management distinguishes agricultural activity from other activities. For example, harvesting from unmanaged sources (such as ocean fishing and deforestation) is not agricultural activity; and
(c)Measurement of change. The change in quality (for example, genetic merit, density, ripeness, fat cover, protein content, and fibre strength) or quantity (for example, progeny, weight, cubic metres, fibre length or diameter, and number of buds) brought about by biological transformation or harvest is measured and monitored as a routine management function.
7Biological transformation results in the following types of outcomes:
(a)asset changes through (i) growth (an increase in quantity or improvement in quality of an animal or plant), (ii) degeneration (a decrease in the quantity or deterioration in quality of an animal or plant), or (iii) procreation (creation of additional living animals or plants); or
(b)production of agricultural produce such as latex, tea leaf, wool, and milk.
8The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified: An active market is a market where all the following conditions exist:
(a)the items traded within the market are homogeneous;
(b)willing buyers and sellers can normally be found at any time; and
(c)prices are available to the public.
Carrying amount is the amount at which an asset is recognised in the statement of financial position.
Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction.
Government grants are as defined in IAS 20 Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance.
9The fair value of an asset is based on its present location and condition. As a result, for example, the fair value of cattle at a farm is the price for the cattle in the relevant market less the transport and other costs of getting the cattle to that market.
Recognition and measurement
10An entity shall recognise a biological asset or agricultural produce when, and only when:
(a)the entity controls the asset as a result of past events;
(b)it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the asset will flow to the entity; and
(c)the fair value or cost of the asset can be measured reliably.
11In agricultural activity, control may be evidenced by, for example, legal ownership of cattle and the branding or otherwise marking of the cattle on acquisition, birth, or weaning. The future benefits are normally assessed by measuring the significant physical attributes.
12A biological asset shall be measured on initial recognition and at the end of each reporting period at its fair value less costs to sell, except for the case described in paragraph 30 where the fair value cannot be measured reliably.
13Agricultural produce harvested from an entity’s biological assets shall be measured at its fair value less costs to sell at the point of harvest. Such measurement is the cost at that date when applying IAS 2 Inventories or another applicable Standard.
15The determination of fair value for a biological asset or agricultural produce may be facilitated by grouping biological assets or agricultural produce according to significant attributes; for example, by age or quality. An entity selects the attributes corresponding to the attributes used in the market as a basis for pricing.
16Entities often enter into contracts to sell their biological assets or agricultural produce at a future date. Contract prices are not necessarily relevant in determining fair value, because fair value reflects the current market in which a willing buyer and seller would enter into a transaction. As a result, the fair value of a biological asset or agricultural produce is not adjusted because of the existence of a contract. In some cases, a contract for the sale of a biological asset or agricultural produce may be an onerous contract, as defined in IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. IAS 37 applies to onerous contracts.
17If an active market exists for a biological asset or agricultural produce, in its present location and condition, the quoted price in that market is the appropriate basis for determining the fair value of that asset. If an entity has access to different active markets, the entity uses the most relevant one. For example, if an entity has access to two active markets, it would use the price existing in the market expected to be used.
18If an active market does not exist, an entity uses one or more of the following, when available, in determining fair value:
(a)the most recent market transaction price, provided that there has not been a significant change in economic circumstances between the date of that transaction and the end of the reporting period;
(b)market prices for similar assets with adjustment to reflect differences; and
(c)sector benchmarks such as the value of an orchard expressed per export tray, bushel, or hectare, and the value of cattle expressed per kilogram of meat.
19In some cases, the information sources listed in paragraph 18 may suggest different conclusions as to the fair value of a biological asset or agricultural produce. An entity considers the reasons for those differences, in order to arrive at the most reliable estimate of fair value within a relatively narrow range of reasonable estimates.
20In some circumstances, market-determined prices or values may not be available for a biological asset in its present condition. In these circumstances, an entity uses the present value of expected net cash flows from the asset discounted at a current market-determined rate in determining fair value.
21The objective of a calculation of the present value of expected net cash flows is to determine the fair value of a biological asset in its present location and condition. An entity considers this in determining an appropriate discount rate to be used and in estimating expected net cash flows. In determining the present value of expected net cash flows, an entity includes the net cash flows that market participants would expect the asset to generate in its most relevant market.
22An entity does not include any cash flows for financing the assets, taxation, or re-establishing biological assets after harvest (for example, the cost of replanting trees in a plantation forest after harvest).
23In agreeing an arm’s length transaction price, knowledgeable, willing buyers and sellers consider the possibility of variations in cash flows. It follows that fair value reflects the possibility of such variations. Accordingly, an entity incorporates expectations about possible variations in cash flows into either the expected cash flows, or the discount rate, or some combination of the two. In determining a discount rate, an entity uses assumptions consistent with those used in estimating the expected cash flows, to avoid the effect of some assumptions being double-counted or ignored.
24Cost may sometimes approximate fair value, particularly when:
(a)little biological transformation has taken place since initial cost incurrence (for example, for fruit tree seedlings planted immediately prior to the end of a reporting period); or
(b)the impact of the biological transformation on price is not expected to be material (for example, for the initial growth in a 30-year pine plantation production cycle).
25Biological assets are often physically attached to land (for example, trees in a plantation forest). There may be no separate market for biological assets that are attached to the land but an active market may exist for the combined assets, that is, for the biological assets, raw land, and land improvements, as a package. An entity may use information regarding the combined assets to determine fair value for the biological assets. For example, the fair value of raw land and land improvements may be deducted from the fair value of the combined assets to arrive at the fair value of biological assets.
Gains and losses
26A gain or loss arising on initial recognition of a biological asset at fair value less costs to sell and from a change in fair value less costs to sell of a biological asset shall be included in profit or loss for the period in which it arises.
27A loss may arise on initial recognition of a biological asset, because costs to sell are deducted in determining fair value less costs to sell of a biological asset. A gain may arise on initial recognition of a biological asset, such as when a calf is born.
28A gain or loss arising on initial recognition of agricultural produce at fair value less costs to sell shall be included in profit or loss for the period in which it arises.
29A gain or loss may arise on initial recognition of agricultural produce as a result of harvesting.
Inability to measure fair value reliably
30There is a presumption that fair value can be measured reliably for a biological asset. However, that presumption can be rebutted only on initial recognition for a biological asset for which market-determined prices or values are not available and for which alternative estimates of fair value are determined to be clearly unreliable. In such a case, that biological asset shall be measured at its cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses. Once the fair value of such a biological asset becomes reliably measurable, an entity shall measure it at its fair value less costs to sell. Once a non-current biological asset meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale (or is included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations, it is presumed that fair value can be measured reliably.
31The presumption in paragraph 30 can be rebutted only on initial recognition. An entity that has previously measured a biological asset at its fair value less costs to sell continues to measure the biological asset at its fair value less costs to sell until disposal.
32In all cases, an entity measures agricultural produce at the point of harvest at its fair value less costs to sell. This Standard reflects the view that the fair value of agricultural produce at the point of harvest can always be measured reliably.
33In determining cost, accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, an entity considers IAS 2
Inventories, IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and IAS 36 Impairment of Assets.
34An unconditional government grant related to a biological asset measured at its fair value less costs to sell shall be recognised in profit or loss when, and only when, the government grant becomes receivable.
35If a government grant related to a biological asset measured at its fair value less costs to sell is conditional, including when a government grant requires an entity not to engage in specified agricultural activity, an entity shall recognise the government grant in profit or loss when, and only when, the conditions attaching to the government grant are met.
36Terms and conditions of government grants vary. For example, a grant may require an entity to farm in a particular location for five years and require the entity to return all of the grant if it farms for a period shorter than five years. In this case, the grant is not recognised in profit or loss until the five years have passed. However, if the terms of the grant allow part of it to be retained according to the time that has elapsed, the entity recognises that part in profit or loss as time passes.
37If a government grant relates to a biological asset measured at its cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses (see paragraph 30), IAS 20 Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance is applied.
38This Standard requires a different treatment from IAS 20, if a government grant relates to a biological asset measured at its fair value less costs to sell or a government grant requires an entity not to engage in specified agricultural activity. IAS 20 is applied only to a government grant related to a biological asset measured at its cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.
40 An entity shall disclose the aggregate gain or loss arising during the current period on initial recognition of biological assets and agricultural produce and from the change in fair value less costs to sell of biological assets.
41An entity shall provide a description of each group of biological assets.
42The disclosure required by paragraph 41 may take the form of a narrative or quantified description.
43An entity is encouraged to provide a quantified description of each group of biological assets, distinguishing between consumable and bearer biological assets or between mature and immature biological assets, as appropriate. For example, an entity may disclose the carrying amounts of consumable biological assets and bearer biological assets by group. An entity may further divide those carrying amounts between mature and immature assets. These distinctions provide information that may be helpful in assessing the timing of future cash flows. An entity discloses the basis for making any such distinctions.
44Consumable biological assets are those that are to be harvested as agricultural produce or sold as biological assets. Examples of consumable biological assets are livestock intended for the production of meat, livestock held for sale, fish in farms, crops such as maize and wheat, and trees being grown for lumber. Bearer biological assets are those other than consumable biological assets; for example, livestock from which milk is produced, grape vines, fruit trees, and trees from which firewood is harvested while the tree remains. Bearer biological assets are not agricultural produce but, rather, are self-regenerating.
45Biological assets may be classified either as mature biological assets or immature biological assets. Mature biological assets are those that have attained harvestable specifications (for consumable biological assets) or are able to sustain regular harvests (for bearer biological assets).
46If not disclosed elsewhere in information published with the financial statements, an entity shall describe:
(a)the nature of its activities involving each group of biological assets; and
(b)non-financial measures or estimates of the physical quantities of:
(i)each group of the entity’s biological assets at the end of the period; and
(ii)output of agricultural produce during the period.
47An entity shall disclose the methods and significant assumptions applied in determining the fair value of each group of agricultural produce at the point of harvest and each group of biological assets.
48An entity shall disclose the fair value less costs to sell of agricultural produce harvested during the period, determined at the point of harvest.
49An entity shall disclose:
(a)the existence and carrying amounts of biological assets whose title is restricted, and the carrying amounts of biological assets pledged as security for liabilities;
(b)the amount of commitments for the development or acquisition of biological assets; and
(c)financial risk management strategies related to agricultural activity.
50An entity shall present a reconciliation of changes in the carrying amount of biological assets between the beginning and the end of the current period. The reconciliation shall include:
(a)the gain or loss arising from changes in fair value less costs to sell;
(b)increases due to purchases;
(c)decreases attributable to sales and biological assets classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5;
(d)decreases due to harvest;
(e)increases resulting from business combinations;
(f)net exchange differences arising on the translation of financial statements into a different presentation currency, and on the translation of a foreign operation into the presentation currency of the reporting entity; and
51The fair value less costs to sell of a biological asset can change due to both physical changes and price changes in the market. Separate disclosure of physical and price changes is useful in appraising current period performance and future prospects, particularly when there is a production cycle of more than one year. In such cases, an entity is encouraged to disclose, by group or otherwise, the amount of change in fair value less costs to sell included in profit or loss due to physical changes and due to price changes. This information is generally less useful when the production cycle is less than one year (for example, when raising chickens or growing cereal crops).
52Biological transformation results in a number of types of physical change—growth, degeneration, production, and procreation, each of which is observable and measurable. Each of those physical changes has a direct relationship to future economic benefits. A change in fair value of a biological asset due to harvesting is also a physical change.
53Agricultural activity is often exposed to climatic, disease and other natural risks. If an event occurs that gives rise to a material item of income or expense, the nature and amount of that item are disclosed in accordance with IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements. Examples of such an event include an outbreak of a virulent disease, a flood, a severe drought or frost, and a plague of insects.
Additional disclosures for biological assets where fair value cannot be measured reliably
54 If an entity measures biological assets at their cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses (see paragraph 30) at the end of the period, the entity shall disclose for such biological assets:
(a)a description of the biological assets;
(b)an explanation of why fair value cannot be measured reliably;
(c)if possible, the range of estimates within which fair value is highly likely to lie;
(d)the depreciation method used;
(e)the useful lives or the depreciation rates used; and
(f)the gross carrying amount and the accumulated depreciation (aggregated with accumulated impairment losses) at the beginning and end of the period.
55If, during the current period, an entity measures biological assets at their cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses (see paragraph 30), an entity shall disclose any gain or loss recognised on disposal of such biological assets and the reconciliation required by paragraph 50 shall disclose amounts related to such biological assets separately. In addition, the reconciliation shall include the following amounts included in profit or loss related to those biological assets:
(b)reversals of impairment losses; and
56If the fair value of biological assets previously measured at their cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses becomes reliably measurable during the current period, an entity shall disclose for those biological assets:
(a)a description of the biological assets;
(b)an explanation of why fair value has become reliably measurable; and
(c)the effect of the change.
57An entity shall disclose the following related to agricultural activity covered by this Standard:
(a)the nature and extent of government grants recognised in the financial statements;
(b)unfulfilled conditions and other contingencies attaching to government grants; and
(c)significant decreases expected in the level of government grants.
Effective date and transition
58This Standard becomes operative for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2003. Earlier application is encouraged. If an entity applies this Standard for periods beginning before 1 January 2003, it shall disclose that fact.
59This Standard does not establish any specific transitional provisions. The adoption of this Standard is accounted for in accordance with IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.
60Paragraphs 5, 6, 17, 20 and 21 were amended and paragraph 14 deleted by Improvements to IFRSs issued in May 2008. An entity shall apply those amendments prospectively for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. Earlier application is permitted. If an entity applies the amendments for an earlier period it shall disclose that fact.
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